Interaction Between Forest & Vegetation Canopies
with Wireless Technology - NASA 1993 Study

April 8, 2018
from: Andrew Michrowski
to: Dianne Knight
date: 8 April 2018 at 19:09

The attached 1993 NASA / University of Texas (Arlington) study conducted over a wide range of 5G and the current LTE frequencies, as well as others, indicates in detail how emissions interact with forest and vegetation types, including associated ground cover.

It indicates as well that especially at the higher frequencies: 3-4 GHz and beyond, to the 5G ones "multiple scattering" (electromagnetic hash) is much more impactful. In the 1993 period, such effects could be generally produced by radar installations (back-scattering) but now with hundreds to thousands of source emissions from various angles and heights + those from satellites, the "multiple scattering" factors accumulates interactions observed by the scientists at UTA.

This is a excellent reference document that is handy for any geophysical analysis not only by wireless technology providers but also for those who have the mandate to oversee the welfare of humans, fauna and flora.

The study does not include interaction with water.
Dr. Andrew Michrowski
scattering model for forest or vegetation, based on the theory of electromagnetic wave scattering in random media
Abstract:

A scattering model for forest or vegetation, based on the theory of electromagnetic wave scattering in random media, is described. The model generalizes the assumptions imposed by earlier models, and the results compare well with measurements from several forest canopies. It is shown how the model elements are integrated to obtain the scattering characteristics of different forest canopies. The scattering characteristics may be displayed in the form of polarimetric signatures, represented by like- and cross-polarized scattering coefficients, for an elliptically polarized wave, or in the form of signal distribution curves. Results illustrating both types of scattering characteristics are given.

Published in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine ( Volume: 35, Issue: 2, April 1993 )
M. A. Karam, F. Amar and A. K. Fung, "Electromagnetic wave scattering from a forest or vegetation canopy: ongoing research at the University of Texas at Arlington," in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 18-26, April 1993.
doi: 10.1109/74.207648

keywords: {atmospheric electromagnetic wave propagation;electromagnetic wave polarisation;electromagnetic wave scattering;Arlington;University of Texas;cross-polarized scattering coefficients;electromagnetic wave scattering;elliptically polarized wave;forest canopy;like-polarised scattering coefficients;polarimetric signatures;random media;research;scattering characteristics;scattering model;signal distribution curves;vegetation canopy;Electromagnetic modeling;Electromagnetic radiation;Electromagnetic scattering;Frequency;Optical scattering;Optical surface waves;Random media;Remote sensing;Soil;Vegetation},

URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=207648&isnumber=5314
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